the artwork as a structure of consiousness: an introduction on what Art is

Document Type : Research Paper


1 political science/university of tehran

2 -


When we are talking about artwork, what are we talking about? Is the meaning of art as a kind of accurate representation of the world as realists may believe it, or are we talking about extrapolation to human psychological states that, as an artist, evaporates from its psychological state? Each of these questions will inevitably lead us to believe in a form of representation of something original and pre-existing. Whether the world, whether nature and society, or the psychological state of the artist - fears, frustrations, love, hatred, and other psychological situations. In this paper, we have tried to illustrate how some of the phenomenological concepts of Edmund Husserl's literature show how the artwork is a form of representing the meaning of the world, as it has been given in the artist's intentional and none-reflective experience. To do this we have tried to provide a proper definition of the concepts we have in Husserl. meanwhile, we tried to establish the proportions that are necessary to achieve the goal of our research. Our basic questions are about the work of art, body and its relationship with the work of art and its perception, as well as the fundamental relationship between the artist and the work of art. We devoted ourselves to trying to demonstrate the artistic nature of art in general and artwork in particular. We tried to enlighten the relationship between the artwork as an object and the objectivity of art-between what the objectivity of art is, and what, as it may be, in the realist approach of art, the artwork as an object is. We also examined the importance of the artist's intentional experiences during the creation of artwork. We also tried to illustrate the importance of the artist's relation to the world around him in virtue of his living-body, both in the production of artwork and in understanding it. Our attempt to demonstrate the attachment of artwork to a natural approach has also examined the relationship between truth claims and art in a phenomenological reading. This, of course, is only a preliminary attempt to move towards a formulation by which we might be able to find new possible truth foundations in art and artworks. We are totally writing against representationalism in an understanding of art, be it a positive approach to representation or a negative one. We proceed toward our research by some prepositions; such as Art is something autonomous which is not bound to any scientific approaches; Arti is not A representation of something it creates the world; by such a creation art provides a non-scientific foundation for human conversation as a tool for improving the world as an inter-subjective world shared in our inter-bodily existence. We also decided to apply Husserlian Conceptions in regard to prepare an answer for anti-foundationalist accounts of art which totally deform what we know as Art and reduce Art to a kind of self-expression of a soloistic Subject which they call an artist. It is of course just an introductory essay.


Crowell, S. (2011). Phenomenology and aesthetics; or why art matters. In J. D. Parry (Ed.), art and phenomenology (pp. 31-53). New York: Routledge.
Heinamaa, S. (2003). toward a phenomenology of sexual difference:Husserl, Merleau-Ponty,Beauvoir. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Huserl, E. (1978). The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology: An Introduction to Phenomenological Philosophy. (D. Carr, Trans.) The Hague: Northwestern University Press.
Husserl, E. (1973). Experience and Judgment. (J. S. Ameriks, Trans.) London: Routledg & Kegan Paul.
Husserl, E. (2000). Ideas Pertaining to a Pure Phenomenology and to a Phenomenological Philosophy: Second Book Studies in the Phenomenology of Constitution (Vol. 2). (A. S. Rojcewicz, Trans.) Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Husserl, E. (2006). The Basic Problems of Phenomenology: From the Lectures, Winter Semester, 1910-1911. (I. F. Hart, Trans.) Dordrecht: Springer.
Husserl, E. (2008). On the Phenomenology of the Consciousness of Internal Time (1893–1917). (J. B. Brough, Trans.) Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers: Kluwer Accademic Publishers.
Maitland, J. (1975). identity ontology and works of art. southwestern journal of philosophy, 6, 186-96.
Malpas, J. (2011). objectivity and self-disclosedness:the phenomenological working of art. In J. D. Parry (Ed.), art and phenomenology (pp. 54-76). New York: Routledge.
Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964). eye and mind. In J. M. Edie (Ed.), the primacy of perception. evanstone: northe western university press.
Russell Keat, J. H. (1991). Understanding Phenomenology. Oxford: Basil blackwell.
Russon, J. (2003). Human Experience:Philosopy,Neurosis, and the Elements of Everyday Life. New York: State University of New York.
Sokolovski, R. (2000). Introduction to Phenomenology. cambrideg: Cambridge University Press.
Sokolowski, R. (2008). Phenomenology of the Human Person. United State of America: Cambridge University Press.
Vieira, M. B. (2009). Th e Elements of Representation in Hobbes:Aesthetics, Th eatre, Law, and Th eology in the Construction of Hobbes’s Th eory of the State. LEIDEN.Boston: Brill.
Vieira, M. B., & Runciman, D. (2008). Representation. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Wrathall, M. (2011). the phenomenological relevance of art. In J. D. Parry (Ed.), aert and phenomenology (pp. 9-30). New York: Routledge.
اَدرشورن, ن. (1391). آنسوی پیکر طبیعی: دیرین‌شناسی هورمون‌ها و جنسیت. (پ. قاسمیان, Trans.) تهران: شیراره.
اسمیت, د. و. (1393). دانشنامه فلسفی استنفورد:پدیدارشناسی. (م. علیا, مترجم) تهران: ققنوس.
افلاطون. (1383). جمهوری (نسخه سوم). (م. ح. لطفی, مترجم) تهران: شرکت سهامی(خاص) انتارات خوارزمی.
زهاوی, د. (1392). پدیدارشناسی هوسرل. (م. ص. واقفی, مترجم) تهران: روزبهان.
هایدگر, م. (1389). منشاء اثر هنری. In م. هایدگر, شعر،زبان و اندیشه رهایی (د. ع. منوچهری, Trans., pp. 103-186). تهران: انتشارات مولا.