Study of Iconography of Achaemenid wall paintings in the tombs of Tatarly

Document Type : Research Paper


art. payamnoor univercity. tehran.iran


The Achaemenid Empire's Shah's road started from Susa and ended up in Sarda in Asia Minor. Clynay was one of the great cities of Frigate, located in Asia Minor, which became very important due to its location on the path of the Shah's road during the Achaemenid period. The most important finds in the Claynea area are the tombstone located in the Tatarli near the Dinar at the border between Lydia and Frigate.The tomb has paintings on wooden beams, which represent the largest painting on the wood of the ancient period and dates back to the middle of the 5th century BC. The purpose of this article is to identify the specific character of Tatarli's tomb paintings and the relation between Anatolian and Iranian figurative traditions, which was carried out through cultural relations between Anatolia and Iran during the Achaemenid period. The research uses descriptive-comparative method and by documentary method to study the tomb paintings and the effect of Achaemenid art style in it. In the typography of memorial buildings at the center of the Achaemenid empire, warriors of the cavalry were in no way prevalent. In the Apadana staircase we see empty hinges and horses without riders. There, the spear of the infantry and the arc of the shah symbolized the power of the Iranian army. But in the works of Achaemenid Empire and the example of the Tartarite tomb painting, we are witnessing the presence of a great warfare scene with infantry and cavalry with the characteristics of Persian weapons and clothing. On the paintings of these walls, especially the figures drawn from the eastern walls, the clothing and identity of the chosen Anatolian choir has been taken from the Achaemenid cloak.In the scene of Tatarli's controversy, unlike the scene of the Tricker Palace, a monumental crown, the battle scene of the Royal Pahlavan in the seals, has continued with signs of reign, such as the crown and the garment of Shahi. This difference in shape can be attributed to different audiences. this difference was due to the ideology of kings' power. The dead body of the enemy is under the feet of the king in the Tatarli painting of Iranian traditions which is also featured in Bisotun; this scene is a combination of the scene of Bishtun Darius and the Royal Pahlavan in the battle of the Dariush Tucker Palace, and likely this role of Dariush in It's a battle with a sectarian enemy.The images depicted on wooden walls of the Tatarli monastery are the most well-known type of painting on the wood in ancient Mediterranean. In Tatarli's tomb, according to the ancient tradition of Frygiyeh, in the building of the Tomb of the wood used, then the wooden beams are decorated with images from the cultural backgrounds of the Persian rulers, which indicate the cultural interpenetration between Frygiy and the Iranian rulers. This shows that adapted images of Achaemenid and Greek art based on their needs and It represented the diversity of nationalities throughout the Achaemenid dynasty.


بریان، پیر (1386)وحدت سیاسی و تعامل فرهنگی در شاهنشاهی هخامنشیان، ترجمه ناهید فروغان، تهران: نشر قطره.
پوپ، آرتور اپهام و فیلیس، اکرمن ( 1387) سیری در هنر ایران، جلد اول، تهران: انتشارات علمی و فرهنگی.
جعفری زاده، مسلم و آرمان شیشه گر (1398) بررسی آثار شیشه ای اشکانی کاخ شائور، مطالعات باستانشناسی، دورۀ 11 ،شمارۀ 1 ، صص35-54.
سید سجادی ، منصور (1385) دهانۀ غلامان : شهری هخامنشی در سیستان )بخش دوم (، باستان شناسی و تاریخ ، سال 11، ش 22-21، صص 28-42.
شهبازی، علیرضا شاپور (1389) راهنمای مستند تخت جمشید، تهران: نشر سفیران فدایی اردستانی، ارغوان (1392) معرفی و بررسی نقاشی های هخامنشی با تاکید بر صحنه ها، پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد باستان شناسی، دانشگاه آزاد تهران مرکزی.
کالیکان ،ویلیام (1385) باستان شناسی و تاریخ هنر در دوران مادی ها و پارسی ها ترجمه گودرز اسعد بختیار، تهران : پازینه.
کخ، هاید ماری (1380) از زبان داریوش، ترجمه پرویز رجبی ، تهران: نشر کارنگ. گیرشمن، رمان (1371) هنر ایران در دوران ماد و هخامنشی، ترجمه عیسی بهنام، تهران:نشر کتاب.
محسنی ، فاطمه ، (1388) بررسی تطبیقی نقش دیوار نگاره دوره هخامنشی کاخ شائور،مجله پیام باستان شناس ، شماره 12،صص 69-84.
محمدیان، فخرالدین و سید رسول موسوی حاجی، خدیجه شریف کاظمی، رضا مهرآفرین (1396) آیین سوگواری در نقوش تاتارلی آناتولی و مقایسه آن با شاهنامه و مراسم کتل در غرب ایران، جستارهای تاریخی، ش 2، صص 149-170.
هژبری نوبری ، علیرضا و مهسا ویسی (1392) هخامنشیان در آسیای صغیر با تکیه بر داده های باستان شناسی، تهران: نشر پردیس دانش. Acar, Ö. (2010). The Looting of History in Uşak and Afyonkarahisar between 1959 and 1969. In L. Summerer, A. von Kienlin (eds.), Tatarlı, the Return of Colours, (pp. 46-61). Istanbul: Yapı Kredi Yayınları.
Akurgal, E (1970) Ancient Civilization and Ruins of Turkey. 2 nd ed . Turkey: Turk Tarih kurumu Basimevi Ankara.
Brosius M. (1996) Women in Ancient Persia (559–331 BC). Oxford.
Calmeyer, P. (1993) “Zwei mit historischen Szenen bemalte Balken der Achaemenidenzeit”, Münchner Jahrbuch der bildenden Kunst 43: 7-18.
Cameron, George G. (1958) "Persepolis Treasury Tablets Old and New. Journal o f Near Eastern Studies,XVII : 161- 76. Demeter, Stefan (2010) Tatarli – A Fifth-Century BCE Painted Wooden Tomb In Anatolia: Study, Conservation, Restitution And Reconstruction, Conservation and the Eastern Mediterranean: Contributions to the 2010 IIC Congress, Istanbul, p.225-230.
Draycott, Catherine M. (2010) Convoy Commanders and other Military Identities in Tomb Art of Western Anatolia around the time of the Persian Wars, Bollettino di Archeologia on line I / Volume speciale.
Emmerling, E., Demeter, S. & Knidlberger, M. (2010). The Restoration and Reconstruction of the Tomb Chamber. In L. Summerer, A. von Kienlin (eds.), Tatarlı, the Return of Colours, (pp. 234-267). Istanbul: Yapı Kredi Yayınları.
Franzen, Christina (2009) Sympathizing with the Monster: Making Sense of Coloniazation Stesichorus' Geryoneis, Quaderni Urbinati di Cultura Classica , 2009, New Series, Vol. 92, No. 2 , pp. 55-72.
Ghirshman, P.) 1964(Iran. Protoiraner, Meder, Achämeniden (Munich).
Isik, Fahri (2007) The Light of the 'Dark Ages' and on the Anatolian Character of the Phrygian Art, Baski Istanbul Aralik. Jacobs, B.(1994) Drei Beiträge zu Fragen der Rüstung und Bekleidung in Iran zur Achämenidenzeit”,Iranica antiqua 29: 125-167.
johanson, peri (2010) Landscapes of Achaemenid Paphlagonia, Presented to the Faculties of the University of Pennsylvania.
Kaptan D., (2005) The Daskyleion Bullae: seal images from the Western Achaemenid .empire (Achaemenid.
History XII). Leiden.
Machteld J. Mellink (1972) Excavations at Karataş-Semayük in Lycia, American Journal of Archaeology,Vol. 77, No. 3, pp: 293-307.
Mellink M.C.(1997) Athens and Persia in the Fifth Century B.C., Cambridge.
Mouton, Alice (2015) The Sacred in Hittite Anatolia: A Tentative Definition, History of Religions , Vol. 55, No. 1 (August 2015), pp. 41-64.
Nicholls, R.V. ( 1979) The Tomb of Hetepka, London.
Nollé, M.)1992( Denkmäler vom Satrapensitz Daskyleion:Studie .
Ramasay, M. W (1889)A study of Phrygian art, the Journal of Hellenic studies,Vol 10و 147-189 Rice,T.T (1961),The Scythians , London.
Roosevelt, C. H. (2003). Lydian and Persian Period Settlement in Lydia (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Cornell University.
Sams, G. K.) 1974( ‘Phrygian painted animals: Anatolian orientalizing art.’A natSt 24: 169-96.
sekunda, N (1996) “Anatolian War-Sickles and the Coinage of Etenna”, R. Ashton (ed.), Studies in Ancient Coinage from Turkey, London: 7-17.
Soudavar, Abolala (2014) Mithraic Societies, From Brotherhood Ideal to Religion's Adversary, Houston.
Soudavar, Abolala (2018) Iranian Complexities (a study in Achaemenid avestian and Sasanian controversils) , Soudavar - Houston Summere L.,( 2007a) Picturing Persian Victory. The painted battle scene on the Munich wood. Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia 13: 3–30.
Summerer, Latife (2007b): From Tatarlı to Munich. The Recovery of a Painted Wooden Tomb Chamber in Phrygia. In: Delemen, İnci (ed.) : The Achaemenid impact on local populations and cultures in Anatolia ; (sixth-fourth centuries B.C.) ; papers presented at the International Workshop, Istanbul, 20 - 21 May 2005. Istanbul: Turkish Institute of Archaeology. pp. 131-158.
Summere L.,( 2008) Imaging a Tomb Chamber: The Iconographic Program of the Tatarlı Wall Paintings, Ancient Greece and Anciant Iran Cross-Cultural Encounters; 265-300.
Summere L.( 2010) Wall Painting . Tatarli the return of colours. Istanbul :120 – 185 .
Tallis, N. )2005( Transport and Warfare. In J. Curtis & N. Tallis (eds.), Forgotten Empire. h e Wold of Ancient Persia (London), 210-217.
Uçankus, H. (2002) Phrygia, Ankara.
Xin, Wu (2005) Central Asia in the context of the Achaemenid Persian empire .(6th to 4th Centuries B. C.) Presented to the Faculties of the University of Pennsylvania .
Weller, M.E.(1970) “The Procession on the Sarcophagus of the Mourning Women”, California Studies in Classical Antiquity 3: 219-227.
Wheeler, E . L. 1982. ‘Hoplomachia and Greek dances in arms.’ GRBS 23: 223-33.