Extraction of the scientific indicators of design; A theoretical approach on the relation of design and knowledge

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Industrial Design, Faculty of Design, Tabriz Islamic Art University, Tabriz, Iran.

2 PhD Student of Industrial Design, Department of Industrial Design, Faculty of Design, Tabriz Islamic Art University, Tabriz, Iran.


Instead of simply reiterating previously established ideas and solutions, this article claims that design is a process for creating new concepts and approaches that can transform the world. To put it another way, design can be thought of as a goal-oriented function that aims to change the current circumstances into more desirable and anticipated events. Exploring the nature of design and its connection to science, this research has produced several notable results. The contributers demonstrate the significance of this topic by studying the role of design from many scientific and philosophical perspectives. To represent the most critical aspects of design and reveal the connections between them, this research intends to describe, develop, and communicate the knowledge of design, clarify the relationship between design and science, and look at the place of design in several scientific disciplines.
In the framework of this research, it is supposed to answer the following questions: "What are the most distinguishing features of design from the point of view of theorists in the design field" and “In what areas can these features be investigated?” The current study was conducted using a descriptive-analytical methodology, the data theory of the foundation was based on induction, and the information collection was desk-based - including the analysis of articles, books, and written texts. The research investigates the relationship between design and science from a fundamental view point and presents a theory to clarify this relationship. The foundation's data analysis method creates a written and documented strategy through the systematic gathering of data and their inductive analysis, which was implemented to resolve the research's open-ended questions.
This theory is based on the information gathered and analyzed throughout the study. This research uses the foundational data theory to investigate the area of innovation in the space of science and knowledge, expressing the essential features of design and categorizing them into three groups after studying the research text and critical works in the fields of design knowledge, and design philosophy, and design studies. The group uses open, axial, and selective coding to present a theory utilizing them. As a result, from this aspect, the type of study is theoretical, and the methodology is content analysis, which is based on looking at and inferring themes from the data.
The investigation's findings are as follows: Open coding was used to extract 51 design features. Axial coding was performed on 13 study areas; each feature's position was confirmed, and selective coding was used to determine their relationships with one another. All components were based on similarity. The three groups that make up their research areas are epistemology, nature, and design knowledge. Following the coding stages, this theory states that half of the most significant design features are in the field of design knowledge, which includes the three words proposed by Cross and the two words approach and design research, which represent 24% of all design features.


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